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Do the Police Need Evidence to Charge You in Australia?

Do the Police Need Evidence to Charge You

For the police to charge you with a crime in Australia, they must generally have reasonable grounds to believe that a crime has been committed and that you are the perpetrator.

Typically, this requires some level of evidence. Physical evidence, witness statements, and circumstantial evidence are only a few examples of the various types of evidence that can be presented in court.

However, being charged does not necessarily mean that you will be convicted. To obtain a conviction, the prosecution must typically prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant committed the crime.

The threshold for filing charges is lower than that for achieving a conviction.

Can the Police Charge You Without Hard Evidence? 

To charge you with a crime, the police do not necessarily need “hard evidence.” What is required are “reasonable grounds” to suspect an offence has been committed.

There may be multiple types of evidence involved, not all of which are physical or “hard” evidence.

“Hard evidence” refers to physical, tangible objects or clear, conclusive evidence.

This may consist of DNA, fingerprints, and surveillance footage. Even though this type of evidence can be persuasive, it is only sometimes necessary for police to file charges.

The police may also rely on “soft evidence” such as witness statements, circumstantial evidence, and observable behaviour patterns.

For instance, if multiple credible witnesses independently state that they saw you commit a crime, the police may charge you based on these statements, even without physical evidence.

Also read: AVO Compliance Check by Police: Process and Purpose

Do the Police Need Evidence to Charge You, and What Types of Physical Evidence Can Be Used Against You?

In Australia, types of hard evidence that may be used against you include:

  1. Physical Objects: These could be weapons, stolen goods, items left at a crime scene, drug paraphernalia, or any physical item connected to the alleged crime.
  2. DNA Evidence: Biological samples such as blood, hair, skin cells, or other bodily fluids can be analysed for DNA connecting an individual to a crime scene or victim.
  3. Fingerprints: These can be lifted from a crime scene and matched to a suspect.
  4. Photographs and Video Recordings: These include surveillance footage, photos from a crime scene, or any visual evidence that links a person to a crime.
  5. Audio Recordings: These could be wiretaps, voicemails, or other recorded audio that may provide incriminating evidence.
  6. Digital Evidence: This can include computer files, emails, text messages, browser histories, or data from GPS devices, among others. While digital evidence might not be “hard” physically, it can provide irrefutable proof of specific actions or communications.
  7. Forensic Evidence: This can include ballistics reports, autopsy results, toxicology reports, or any other evidence derived from scientific analysis of physical materials.
  8. Documents: Written documents, such as letters, contracts, or fraudulent forms, can be hard evidence if they are related to the crime.

Do the Police Need Evidence to Charge You, and What Are The Sample Of Soft Evidence? 

“Soft evidence” typically refers to forms of proof that are less tangible or more subjective than “hard evidence.” Here are some examples of soft evidence:

  1. Witness Testimony: An individual’s account of what they saw, heard, or experienced related to an alleged crime. Their memory or perspective might be subject to errors or bias.
  2. Character Evidence: Information about a person’s past behaviour, reputation, or personality traits that may indicate their likelihood to commit a specific act. This is only admissible under certain conditions.
  3. Circumstantial Evidence: Evidence that requires an inference to connect it to a conclusion of fact—like a fingerprint at the crime scene, which doesn’t directly prove who committed the crime but establishes that a specific person was present.
  4. Expert Opinion: An expert in a particular field—like a forensic analyst, psychiatrist, or handwriting expert—might provide an interpretation of evidence or an opinion on a specific matter. This relies on the expert’s credibility and the strength of their analysis.
  5. Hearsay Evidence: An out-of-court statement presented for the truth of the matter it asserts. While hearsay evidence is often inadmissible due to its unreliability, exceptions exist.
  6. Pattern Evidence: If a person has engaged in a consistent pattern of behaviour, it might be used to suggest they acted in the same way on the occasion in question. This can include patterns of criminal activity or conduct that indicate a motive.
  7. Confessions: Verbal or written statements in which a person admits to committing a crime. The reliability of confessions can sometimes be questioned, especially if there’s a possibility they were coerced.

How To Know If You’ve Been Charged With An Offence in Australia?

If you’ve been charged with an offence in Australia, there are several ways you may find out:

Arrest: In many cases, if you’re being charged with a criminal offence, you’ll be arrested by police. During the arrest, the police must inform you of the reason for your arrest.

Court Attendance Notice (CAN): You might receive a Court Attendance Notice, a document that states the specific charges against you and includes the date and place you’re required to attend court. It may be handed to you in person, mailed to you, or served in another legally acceptable manner.

Summons: In some cases, particularly with less serious offences, you might receive a summons. A summons is a written order from a court that commands the person named to appear before it at a specific time to answer the charge detailed in it.

Police Charge or Citation: In some instances, such as for traffic violations or minor offences, you may be issued a citation or an infringement notice containing the crime’s details and a fine.

What Happens After You’ve Been Charged?

Once formally charged with a crime, you will receive a charge sheet recorded at the police station to be presented in court. You will also have access to the police prosecution file, where the officer will document communication methods, dates, times, and information provided. You will also have the option of contacting a legal representative and pleading guilty or not guilty.

Do The Police Need Evidence To Charge You?

It’s essential to be informed about your rights. Our experienced AVO legal team at Justice Family Lawyers can provide you with advice and guidance. 

Don’t hesitate to contact us if you’re facing charges or simply need to understand the law better.

Get the facts, know your rights, and find out what truly matters when it comes to the question: Do the police need evidence to charge you?

13 thoughts on “Do the Police Need Evidence to Charge You in Australia?”

  1. If someone was to make a police complaint about me that happened in my own home with no witnesses, no video footage and no physical evidence do they have enough evidence to charge me?

  2. Hi if someone was attacked in my home and they had put a statement against me but later retracted the statement and said they have no memory of what actually happened and there are no further witnesses would this then be dropped as the sole witness has retracted there statement how could the police alledge what has occurred if the victim says they are now not sure how it happened and how they were injured

  3. If there’s a family violence and the injury to victim but no evidence (No Video, No Witness) and the accused is denying family violence. What could be the potential outcome in court?

    1. In criminal proceedings, the prosecution generally has the burden to prove the accused’s guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. If there’s limited evidence, this might make it more challenging to meet that standard.

      However, even without video or eyewitness evidence, there may be other forms of physical evidence, such as the nature of the injuries, medical records, damaged property, or forensic evidence that can support the victim’s claim. The credibility, history of offences, and consistency in the testimony of the victim and the accused are also crucial in aiding the court’s decision.

      In some cases, expert witnesses, like psychologists or medical professionals, may also be called to provide expert testimony about the injuries or the patterns of abuse in domestic violence situations.

      Possible outcomes of the court proceedings will vary depending on the specific facts of the case. If the court is convinced of the accused’s guilt based on the presented evidence, they may choose to implement fines, domestic violence orders or terms of imprisonment, depending on the nature and severity of the offence.

      It is important to note that even if no criminal conviction is given, allegations of family violence can impact related family law matters, such as custody disputes or the issuance of protective orders.

  4. So if a group of people got together and said you had done something when you hadnt they can frame you and police will believe the group of people as they got there stories straight and a innocent person goes to jail

  5. A bike rider made a statement to police alleging that i tried to run him off the road. i heard from the police what his allegations are, and to my knowledge, are false. There is no evidence, and no witnesses. However, the police have said I will be issued with a fine simply on his statement, do i have to accept this? Is it possible to recieve a fine just from this persons say so?

    1. Hi Justin, it is advisable to carefully read through the fine you receive. It should include information on why the fine was issued and how you can contest it. It may be beneficial to consult with a lawyer who specialises in traffic law to help you understand your options and the best course of action.

  6. E-bike Stolen ($5,5k)

    Chain smashed with hammer

    Eye witness identified 100% the person of interest & puts thief at the Scene

    Video footage from shopping Center Security shows 2-3 teens next to bike attempting to remove lock.

    Bike locked smashed video shows teens leaving with e-Bike.

    Stolen Bike information posted on socials / reported to Police.

    Through investigation process
    the Thief is now 100% identified and after getting hold of & having a conversation with his Mum, this resulted in a 100% confession / statement that it was her Son.

    2nd statement from Older Brother who informed us his younger Brother was the thief and stated particulars about the events.

    Can we proceed with prosecution?

    Best option for conviction of repeat offenders?

    Or best options ?

    1. You appear to have strong evidence against the identified perpetrator, including eyewitness accounts, video footage, and confessions from the suspect’s mother and brother, which would support pursuing charges through the criminal justice system. It is advisable to consult with a solicitor experienced in criminal law to better understand the process and likely outcomes.

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